Tess of the D'Urbervilles BY Hardy, Thomas

Transcript of Censorship in Tess of the d'Urbervilles

Tess of the d'Urbervilles A Pure Woman?

Censorship in Tess of the d'Urbervilles Obscene Publications Act of 1857 banned Tess because of obscenity evidence for Tess being controversial lies in the difficulty that Hardy had in securing a publisher, of preventative censorship

was originally to be published by Tillotson & Son, but due to the controversial nature of the text, they did not proceed with serialization

two other magazines, Murray's Magazine and Macmillian's Magazine rejected Tess as well

Hardy undertook a 'bowdlerization' of his novel at this point

bowdlerization is a term named for Thomas Bowdler, and refers to when a literary work has had sexual and lewd content edited

serialization of Tess began in the Graphic on July 4th, 1891

the American serialization in Harper's Magazine had begun March 7th, 1980

due to censorship from editors who would not publish Tess in it's original form, multiple versions of the text with scenes removed or added by Hardy exist

omitted chapters on Alec's seduction of Tess, and Tess's midnight baptism of her own baby were printed in the National Observer and the Fortnightly Review respectively with changed names and location

1912 Wessex edition version of the text that is reprinted

Hardy was able to rewrite the text from the bawdlerized serial and altered many scenes multiple versions questionable content?

May dance and connections to pagan past

seduction/rape by Alec (in some editions, mock marriage)

midnight baptism of Sorrow Angel carrying the milkmaids across

serious consideration of suicide

becoming Alec's mistress in financial distress

murder of Alec

portrayal of Stonehenge and connection to pagan elements

subtitled "A Pure Woman" and Hardy's characterization of Tess as such, despite her past Alec gives Tess a "well-known cordial"

on the Chase in the Graphic, the Chase scene is omitted and Tess returns home, telling her mother how Alec tricked her into a sham marriage

the sexual relations are implied, though Tess worries about the moral and legal validity of the contract

Sorrow is completely omitted

Angel finds a convenient wheelbarrow to transport the milkmaids

Angel 'jestingly' asks Izz to go to Brazil retracts when he realizes she takes it seriously

in the Graphic, Tess and Alec are residing at the boarding house as companions, or cousins and Tess has a separate room

major edits Hardy's challenging of Victorian morals, especially in regards to the double standard of sexuality was regarded as obscene

reliance on implications and suggestion to the reader in earlier versions which result in a different story

one of the biggest objections was the characterization of Tess as a pure woman, despite her sexual history

Angel and Alec both assign Tess a sexual identity through her innocence her representation as the ideal Victorian realization of femininity is her ultimate downfall conclusions