Published in 1759, Voltaire's critically hailed satire, Candide, U.S. Customers seized Harvard-bound copies in the 1930's claiming obscenity. Two Harvard professors defended the work, and it was later admitted in a different edition. In 1944, the US Post Office demanded the omission of Candide from a mailed Concord Books catalog.
Meanwhile, Catholic Church. Bishop Etienne Antoine (1834 - 1903) wrote: "We prohibit, under canonical law, the printing or sale of these books..." (to be fair, I cannot find the original reference for this quote - but it seems to be associated with this book. And no wonder - Candide pokes merciless fun and criticism of all characters involved with the church.)